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Sibiu Baroque 3D, Sibiu, SB, Transylvania, Romania

,, ... And capital is Sibiu, in common speech Hermannstadt is almost as large as Vienna in Austria and is well fortified. "
Sebastian Münster (1489-1552), famous German humanist and cosmographer about Transylvanian cities in his "Cosmograph Universalis"

,, Large and powerful this city, not only adorned with magnificent buildings, but also flourishing all negoţurile and other riches. "
Nicolaus Olahus, humanist born on 10 January Sibiu. 1493, Archbishop Primate of Hungary and the Habsburg Empire baron in his capital "Hungaria et Attila"


Sibiu - HERMANNSTADT - NAGYSZEBEN - CIBINIUM

Natural environment and geography

Sibiu is located on the map of Romania in the south of Transylvania, in the north basin of the Southern Carpathians. The city is located at the intersection of the parallel of 45.48 and 24.29 north latitude and the meridian of east longitude, the point being situated near the center of the country, near Agnita (jud.Sibiu).
Favorable natural conditions enrolled in Sibiu area anthropogenesis wider area, so that the first human habitation of the area dates back to Sibiu Stone and Bronze Age. Later, in the area known locally develops Dacian and Daco-Roman then known as the Caedonia (today Guşteriţa district of Sibiu).
After the army and government of the province of Dacia (271-274 AD.) Present territory of Sibiu history traces remain without permanent cause was possible and frequent invasions of migratory populations, residents are forced to withdraw from the path their mountains, and submontane valleys of the main rivers.
Local population organized in principalities, principalities and "country", which is in an advanced process of assimilation of alien has developed its own way of socio-economic and legal organization called "jus valachicum" which has proven durability until the dawn of the modern era. She put up a tenacious resistance conquest of Transylvania by Hungarian kings, descendants of the legendary Saint Stephen (997-1038), who took nearly three centuries (XIII-XIV) in order to extend dominion by the Southern Carpathians and Eastern.

Overview


Its beginnings date back to the mid-century. twelfth - century, without specifying a date, a period that is part of the second phase of colonization of Transylvania by the Hungarian king. By a constant and rapid development for three centuries, Sibiu became the most important city in Transylvania, became a thriving and prosperous. For comparison, in 1376, when the decree for the establishment and development of the Saxon guilds "Seven Chairs" and, in particular, those from Sibiu seat, there are included 19 guilds, 25 branches of crafts, compared to 17 in Ulm, 15 in Augsburg, 22 in Cologne and 28 in Strasbourg.
Along with other centers of Transylvania, which gave the German name for this area of ​​the Carpathian mountains, Siebenbürgen, Sibiu long history held a prominent place, both administratively and culturally.
Flowering period crafts and trade, items that Saxons have earnestly promoted and toughness, developing them then colonized territory, led to the creation of a relationship of complementarity with rural hinterland, inhabited largely by Romanian , which led to some economic prosperity for them. This coexistence multisecular, mostly peaceful, has generated interesting phenomena of acculturation, which give specific notes Sibiu area.
Another characteristic of this complex phenomenon, easy to decipher the cultural creations and monuments, is assimilation trends and ideas of Western European architectural styles, from the Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque, and their combination, mainly in the Romanian with defining elements of art and architecture Byzantine, Orthodox invoice due to the constant links with the country of Sibiu Romanian and Moldova. Sibiu is, in fact, the most important national architectural reserve, not only as to the extent possible, especially in the richness and complexity's urban and architectural elements preserved.


History
Middle Ages (XII-XV)

History places where today stands Sibiu, with its citadel, is lost in the mists of time.
Sibiu County was the most intense area of ​​colonization, as proving documents of the time, and the historical reality of the centuries that followed. In this historical context, the first groups of settlers arrived in the mid-century Transylvania. XII, at the call of King Geza II (1141-1162), who granted a number of privileges. They came from German territories west of the Rhine River, located in the affluent neighborhood and Mossele its current territory of Luxembourg and Belgium. They were Flemish, Walloons and Franconia, being led by Greava (Greaves), chosen from their ranks. Later, towards the end of sec. XII and the next, they were joined by other waves of settlers from central and southern Germany.
First mention in documents of the time maintained on the land surrounding Sibiu, dates from December 20, 1191, when Pope Celestine III confirmed by a papal bull, there is a free Catholic prepozituri German population in the region, founded by Hungarian King Bela III (1172-1197). Called "praepositum Cibiniensem" or "prepozitura St. Ladislaus' and based in Sibiu (Cybinium) represent ecclesiastical body with Catholic hierarchy leading role in this area of ​​Transylvania. In 1223 is attested for the first time the German name "Hermannsdorf" in a document relating to hotărnicia of this settlement and Michelsberg (Cisnădioara). Hungarian king Andrew II (1205-1235), following repeated complaints of the German population in Transylvania in 1224 granted a special diploma, known as the "Golden Bull of Saxons" ("diploma Andrean" or "Andreanum"). The document reaffirms their privileges, while establishing their rights and obligations, has become the foundation of the whole system of rights that they have created community Saxon settlement territory ("fundus regius"). It was also decided that the territory called "Blachorum Silva et Bissenorum" ("Romanians and the Pechenegs forest") to be used by settlers together with Romanians and the Pechenegs. Saxon leader called royal judge, resided in Sibiu, becoming the city's political center of the Transylvanian Saxon population. After watershed moment represented the great Tartar invasion in 1241-1242, when Transylvania is passed through fire and sword, the city was burned down and destroyed almost completely, only in 1302 it signaled the start organizing chairs Saxons, Sibiu is first chair said.
About a real city development (economic, administrative and municipal) can speak only from the reign d'Anjou dynasty kings, especially Louis the Great (1342-1382), when they were introduced Western models of governance. Still mentioned as the Hermansdorf in 1321, Sibiu will get status of 'civitas' (city), in a document of 1366 is remembered as Hermannstadt village name.
Fear of foreign invasions imposed Sibiu fortification effort that will not stop, with brief interruptions, until the beginning of sec. seventeenth century, with the entry Habsburg Transylvania in the political system and the development of techniques were ineffective siege of the city walls on site.

During principality (XVI-XVIII)

Sibiu medieval period is characterized by continuous economic growth (combined with increasing commercial ties), marked by guild activity. The first of these statutes (1376) lists the 19 guilds with 25 trades, their numbers and economic power is gradually increased, reaching to count in the second half of the century. XVI 29 guilds, 34 in 1724 and 1780 to be certified 40, at a time when already grown considerably manufactures role.
Sibiu, with majority German population was not spared the effects of the reform of Martin Luther, Saxons adopting religious reform (1543), moving en masse to the new denomination (Evangelical / Protestant) that, for the most part, a witness today.
Century. XVI store and the first descriptions of the city. The details are known Italian traveler Giovannandrea Gromo who noticed large stone houses, beautiful and pleasant passage stone streets and beautiful and honest women.
Conquest of Transylvania by the Habsburgs and integration between the borders of the empire (by Leopold Diploma in 1691) marks for Sibiu entering a new phase, becoming the capital of the province for a hundred years (1692-1791) and head of Gubernium. Its links with European Enlightenment centers will directly influence the economic, social, cultural and urban development of the city.
Although, in terms of confessional Lutheran Saxons retain religion, counter-witness of the Catholic Church ("Counter"), manifested by the arrival of several religious orders in Sibiu
(Jesuit, Franciscan, Ursuline). Roman Catholicism is the promoter with significant impact on the baroque architecture of the city, especially during the governor of Transylvania was Baron Samuel von Brukenthal (1777-1787).

Modern era (XIX-XX)

Gradually, Sibiu became one of the most important cultural centers of the Romanians in Transylvania, with an important role in achieving unity Romanian national state on 1 December 1918.
Revolutionary movements during the years 1848-1849 Sibiu is the way confrontation between the Hungarian revolutionary army and Habsburg troops, supported by the Tsar, who brought great damage to the city.
City on Cibin continues its expansion and modernization, wooden buildings dating from medieval times instead of leaving solid construction purposes, the late Baroque tracks to be mixed with various previous inheritance and innovation of reinforced concrete, marking, as elsewhere in Europe an architectural eclecticism emphasized.
Nineteenth century, viewed from the perspective of this was bad for Sibiu medieval architecture, especially in the second half of it. While in Europe is the first forms of research and protection of monuments, most of Sibiu fortifications, walls, towers, gates and three of the five bastions were demolished.
Following industrial development as a result of the Convention beneficial Austro-Hungarian-Romanian trade since 1875, has been increasing the number of inhabitants of Sibiu, from 13,872 in 1857 to over 30,000 in 1918, reaching the interwar period to 48,000 inhabitants.
After the Second World War the district center in 1968, with administrative-territorial reorganization of the country, Sibiu county returns to center. The town was elevated to municipality since 1925.
The most significant political event for Sibiu in the second half of the century. XX is the revolution of 1989. City on Cibin was among the first cities in Romania, following the example of Timisoara, rebelled against Ceausescu dictatorship.

But for Sibiu's main event was the beginning of the millennium designation, in tandem with Luxembourg, as European Cultural Capital in 2007, under the slogan "Sibiu / Hermannstadt - City of Culture, City of Cultures". The "Sibiu - European Capital of Culture 2007" is under the patronage of the Romanian Presidency, being made by the "Sibiu - CCE 2007" in collaboration with the Municipality of Sibiu, Ministry of Culture Sibiu County Council, supported by the Prime Minister of Romania and the European Commission.
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